These combined 4-letter-articles contain the narrative report, learning module and the aforementioned letters which are very important in business correspondence, especially when said letters are used for the higher authorities regarding promotions, career growth and development and for asking a favor intended for the benefits of teachers and students in particular.
Sample solicitation letter # 1:
CONTROL NUMBER: _________________
May the Omnipotent God be with all of us — a promising year of opportunities and blessings!
As we start the annual fiesta in honor of “Birhen sa Fatima” in Lower Pakigne, Minglanilla, Cebu, our organization named __________ is also on the preparatory stages for the barangay-initiated activities. This religious festival is a yearly barangay-wide activity that involves constituents or people from all walks of life to support financially in order to make it successful. Thus, the fiesta needs full support of the youth who are partly the “financial backers.” Without the youth, it needs a long time to carry out the task that hinders the progress and success of the celebration.
In the light of the aforementioned event, it is but imperative for the _________ to prepare for its logistics that include, among others, the costumes and accessories, food, props, shirts and streamers. For this end, please consider your good self a prospective benefactor for our ___________ . Please feel free to check any choices below as your generous and sincere help for this undertaking:
Minor Sponsor (Php 1,000.00) Mega Sponsor (Php 10,000.00)
Major Sponsor (Php 5,000.00) Donors (Php 500.00-Php 999.99)
As a form of acknowledgment for the financial help you graciously extended to us, your name or that of your company will be printed in our banners and shirts, and will be included in our barangay issue. But we are confident that our prayers for your well-being will suffice with what we have anticipated more than these.
_____________ ___________ ____________
Name/Signature of Solicitor Youth President Youth Organizer
CONTROL NUMBER: _____________
I am heartily choosing myself to be one of your _____________ (please indicate: sponsor or donor) for (Php __________ .00). Good luck in your undertaking.
Name of Company / Benefactor:
Signature of Company Representative / Benefactor:
Sample application letter # 2:
April 11, 2011
AVP – HRDM
University of the Visayas
Dean, Graduate School
University of the Visayas
I am writing to express my interest in the Graduate School, here at University of the Visayas-Main Campus as one of your professors. I have been teaching as a College Instructor at University of the Visayas-Minglanilla Campus for seven years now. As the Visayanian product and alumnus of this university during my baccalaureate or 4-year course, the position seems to fit very well with my education, experience, and career interests. With B.S.Ed. degree and Master’s degree in English, I have a full understanding of the full life cycle of a mentor or an effective teacher inside and outside the classroom. Besides, I have a lot of experiences in learning and excelling at innovations and other things as needed.
Aside from the aforementioned experiences, the position also requires fulfillment and experience in tertiary level, and years’ teaching experience in a teacher education institution. As a graduate of Doctor of Education (Ed.D.) at Southwestern University, Major in Educational Management, I have trainings on principles, methods and strategies of teaching, as well as on a variety of educational management programs and applications. To indicate further in the accompanying resume and selection criteria, I offer the following qualifications and experience:
Doctor of Education (Ed.D.) Major in Educational Management
Master of Arts in Teaching English (Language and Literature)
Bachelor of Secondary Education (BSEd) Major in English
Supervisory / Educational Management Experience
School Publication / Journalism Project Skills
Thus, my background and career goals seem to match your standard and quality of education well. I am confident that I can perform the job as Graduate School Professor effectively. Furthermore, I am genuinely interested in the position and in working for your learning institution.
I am a motivated professional with a variety of skills and experience. My personal qualities reveal excellent teamwork and leadership skill, a high level of initiative and creative energy. Please see my resume for additional information on my experience.
I can be reached anytime via my phone, 5823413. Thank you for your time and consideration. I look forward to the opportunity of meeting with you and discussing my suitability for the position further.
Junjun De Jesus Faja, Ed.D.
Sample Narrative Report # 3:
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
Department of Education
Region VII, Central Visayas
DIVISION OF CEBU PROVINCE
MINGLANILLA NATIONAL SCIENCE HIGH SCHOOL
Poblacion Ward I, Minglanilla, Cebu
Narrative Reports on School Activities, Especially in the Contests Won by the Students and Coaches during Municipal, District/Area, Division and Regional Levels and Other English Activities of Minglanilla National Science High School
Major activities took place this school year 2008-2009 while minor activities happened in the previous years
Participation by students is a novel aspect of the contest and highlights the important role of students and teachers in their education.
Minglanilla National Science High School (MNSHS) is actively participating in all the activities not only on campus but also off campus, including major contests released through memos from schools division superintendent and even regional director in Region VII. This learning institution is the lead school and major participant of the Municipality of Minglanilla: the town of Minglanilla’s wide activities to celebrate with great pride and in consonance with DepEd memorandums, particularly this school year 2008-2009. Thus, MNSHS hosted several “open house” events, lecture series and other activities last 3 years to highlight the school’s contribution to learning and culture. A featured event on the campus up to now is the development of special multiple-intelligences show type contest in order to expose the students with diverse kinds of intelligences they have.
- MNSHS Tops Division Science Fair
- The Access Staff Writer in News Category Joins RSPC ’08
- MNSHS Brings Out Top 2008 Winners in Intramurals
- 25 MNSHS Staffers Emerged Victorious during Presscon Contests
- Division Math Quiz Challenge: Another Thumb-Ups for MNSHS
- Science Fair 2008 at Compostela: MNSHS Achieves Victory
- Students Technologists and Entrepreneurs of the Philippines (STEP) Regional Competition
- Values Education Meet 2008
- MNSHS Strikes at DSPC
- MNSHS Joins “Tagisan ng Talino”
English Dept. Activities Report
- English Activities from June to December 2008
- Adviser/Subject Teacher Activities Last School Year 2007-2008
MNSHS Tops Division Science Fair
The top contenders in the municipal levels within the province of Cebu were qualified to compete in the Division Science Fair, and one of the schools qualified to represent was Minglanilla National Science High School. Even with only one day of preparation, the MNSHS contestants were victorious in the 2008 Division Science Fair, held last November 18 at Compostela National High School.
The winners for individual quizzes: Carlo Galicia, 3rd place for 1st year category; Razziane Mae Segismar, 3rd place for 2nd year category; Gio Abastillas, 3rd place for 3rd year category; and Meldie Rose Sy, 6th place for 4th year category. The school also bagged 4th place for the Team Orals, with contestants Debbie Ellis Daniel (1st year), David Tsidkenu Corpuz (2nd year), Michelle Nicole Escuyos (3rd year), and Janine Aliganga (4th year).
The coaches were very happy with the outcome of the contest, considering the fact that they had received the memo from the division office a day before the contest. This only proved that MingScians can still emerge victorious even in such a short period of time.
The Access Staff Writer in News Category-English Joins RSPC ’08
The DepEd Region VII Schools Press Conference was formally opened last November 30 at the Mandaue City Sports Complex. The theme for this year’s RSPC is “Climate Change: A Call for Responsible Journalism.” The opening was followed by a series of lectures and contests for the campus journalists the next day after.
The opening events started early that day, with the registration of the delegates from the 19 divisions of Region VII. It was followed by a parade of all the delegates from the Mandaue City Plaza to the Sports Complex, where the opening program was held. Present in the affair were Mandaue Mayor Jonas Cortes, Rep. Nerissa Soon-Ruiz, Dr. Arden Monisit, and Dir. Recaredo Borgonia, to name a few. Each of them gave messages of welcome and inspiration for the delegates. The raising of the banners was led by Dir. Recaredo Borgonia, who was given the honor to raise the RSPC Flag. Meanwhile, the recitation of the Journalist’s Creed was led by Flora Mae Cruz of the MCCNHS.
The contest proper was held immediately the following day at the Mandaue City Comprehensive NHS. There was a one-hour lecture each for News Writing by Ms. Queenie S. Bronce, Copy Reading and Headline Writing by Ms. Connie Fernandez, Photo Journalism by Mr. Bien Fernandez, Sports Writing by Mr. Emmanuel Villaruel, Feature Writing by Ms. Mayette Tabada, Editorial Writing by Dr. Ramir Uytico, Editorial Cartooning by Mr. Ramesh Rosello, and Radio Broadcasting by Mrs. Jean Antiporta. After the lectures, the participants went to their respective venues for the contest.
In this regional presscon, Gio L. Abastillas, one of our students from Minglanilla National Science High School in News Writing Category got 7th place but 5th place in the Division Level.
The three-day annual Regional Schools Press Conference was organized by the DepEd VII to improve the journalistic skills of the campus journalists and their advisers. The winners of this affair will represent the region for the National Schools Press Conference on February 15-21, 2009 in the Division of Naga City, Region V with the same theme “Climate Change: A Call for Responsible Campus Journalism.”
MNSHS Brings Out Top 2008 Winners in Intramurals
Minglanilla National Science High School commemorated Intramurals last July 31 to August 1, 2008.
It started with an opening ceremony, together with the banner making contest. The search for Ms. Intramurals was ensued, along with different game events like volleyball, basketball, table tennis, badminton, lawn tennis, chess, dart and scrabble.
The seniors emerged champion in basketball. Kristofer Omiping was awarded as the Most Valuable Player of the said game.
The juniors defeated the seniors in volleyball. They proved to all that they are also strong in terms of spiking and hurling the ball to the opponents with straight whirling moves in both sides of the court.
On the other hand, Kimberly Mae Saycon got the title for Miss Intramurals and David Corpus emerged champion in chess.
The overall champion went to the juniors as they got “most of the wins” during ballgames’ showdowns.
25 MNSHS Staffers Emerged Victorious during Presscon Contests
MNSHS staff writers both in English and Filipino, together with other delegates from Southeast Schools joined the Southeast Area Level Campus Journalism Workshop. It held at Dalaguete National High School last October 25-26, 2008.
The campus journalists competed with other writers and they emerged victorious in different categories of journalistic writing. The contests, both in English and Filipino, were News, Editorial, Feature, Sports, Copyreading and Headlining, Photojournalism, and Editorial Cartooning.
News and Editorial Writings, Photojournalism and Copyreading were done on the 1st day while Feature and Sports Writings, Editorial Cartooning, and Photo-layout were done on the 2nd day. Game viewing for Sports Writing took place in Dalaguete Sports Complex in which the volleyball was the main event of the game.
Fortunately, almost all “The Access and Liwanag” staffers garnered and entailed themselves in 1st to 15th winning slots in their respective categories. For The Access staffers – English Edition (the coach is Dr. Ermetes F. Adolfo, Jr.), the 1st placers or champions were Dave Martjee Paug (III-Nickel) for Copyreading and Headline Writing and Carlo Galicia (I-Copper) for Editorial Writing. Galicia ranked also 3rd in News Writing.
The other placers were Phoebe Sharmae Florida (5th placer), and Don Francis Acapulco (8th placer) in Photojournalism, Zea Ara Mai Galado (2nd placer) in Editorial Writing. She also grabbed the 6th place in Sports Writing. In the same category, Franzis Mari Lawas ranked also 8th place. Aldrin Navarro got the 2nd place in Editorial Cartooning while in News Writing Category, Gio Abastillas got the 2nd place. In Copyreading and Headline Writing Category, Keiana Lapitan got the 15th place. In Feature Writing Category, Jessa Montellano ranked 4th place while Wennie Langbid, Jr. ranked 5th place.
For Liwanag Staffers – Filipino Edition (the coach is Mrs. Begonia P. Tecson), Meldie Rose Sy got the 3rd place in Copyreading and Headline Writing. In News Writing, Damsel Mondido got the 1st place and Fritzie Cruda was on the 8th place. In Feature Writing, Justine Faith Basilla got the 3rd place and Lyn Alexia Pielago got the 2nd place. In Photojournalism, Robert Navales got the 11th place and the 12th place went to Khristbel Garem Garcia. In Editorial Cartooning, Vince Villagonzalo got the 2nd place and 4th place for Franklin Macarat. In Editorial Writing, Michelle Nicole Escuyos grabbed the 14th place and Joan Marisse Deguma for the 15th place. In Sports Writing, Jeffex James Canonigo was on the 3rd spot.
The aforementioned staffers were included in the top 15 to represent the Division Schools Press Conference at Consolacion Central School, Consolacion, Cebu on October 10-12, 2008.
Division Math Quiz Challenge: Another Thumb-Ups for MNSHS
The Division Math Challenge is a competition of the best Math Wizards of every Municipality in the Division of Cebu.
Being a Science High School, Minglanilla National Science High School Math contestants have recently grabbed their 1st rank in the Municipal Level Math Quiz and they were definitely scheduled to compete in the Division Level. This beacons that the school proves its intellectual perseverance to win and prowess to beat all the opponents in one strike of answer.
Last November 21, 2008, the Division Level Math Quiz challenge took place in San Remegio National High School where 36 participants who came from different schools and won first to 3rd places in the Municipal Level were qualified to compete in the Division Level dubbed as The Battle of the Best Math Wizards.
Other Science High Schools were also present and they were there to compete, namely, Compostela Science and Technology and Medellen Science and Technology. Other public schools were also there that are well-known to be rivals of MNSHS in all the annual Math competitions.
The contestants: 1st year – Angelo Caba±ero and Jade Lyle Betito ranked 5th place; 2nd year – Jeselle Aliganga ranked 10th place in individual category, 3rd year – Gio Abastillas and Shaira Abangan got the 3rd place in team orals and 4th year – Janine Aliganga and Meldie Rose Sy got the 6th place in team orals. The coaches were Mrs. Cherry Lou Zapanta, (Math coordinator) and Mr. Russel A. Dulosa, Math teacher.
Science Fair 2008 at Compostela: MNSHS Achieves Victory
Minglanilla National Science High School contenders vie with another crown of glory as they prove anew that they reign over other participating schools in Division Science Fair 2008. The 8 representatives from this learning institution never failed to be included in the top 10 every time there is an announcement of winners.
The competition was held in Compostela National Science High School on November 18, 2008, Tuesday at 8 o’clock a.m. There were 36 participants in the Division Level, but these participants were the “cream of the crop” in the Municipal Level and they were really good at the field of science.
The quiz bowl contest was represented by Janine Aliganga, Debbie Daniel, Michelle Escuyos and David Corpuz and they ranked 4th place. In quiz bee from 1st year, 2nd year, 3rd year to 4th year: 1st year was represented by Carlo Galicia and he won 3rd place; 2nd year was represented by Razziane Mae Segismar and she won 4th place; 3rd year was represented by Gio Abastillas and he won 3rd place; and 4th year was represented by Meldie Rose and she won 6th place.
The school is looking forward to topping or panning out again not only in this level but also in the next level to come and other competitions the following year.
Student-Technologists and Entrepreneurs of the Philippines (STEP) Regional Competition
One of the students who happened to be an overall winner in STEP competition both in the municipal and division levels was singled out to compete in the regional level competition. She was chosen not only by her coach Mr. Franklin Luague, Jr. but also by the principal Mrs. Eutiquia S. Alday to have another breathtaking challenge in the field of technology.
A STEP quiz was conducted last November 4-7, 2008 in Sibulan, Dumaguete, Negros Oriental. Present during the regional competition representing Minglanilla National Science High School were Razziane Mae Segismar, 2nd year student and Mr. Franklin Luague, Jr, coach and T.L.E. coordinator. Segismar ranked 5th place in Business Techno Quiz and achieved the highest rank in Cebu Province Division.
20 Divisions in Region VII joined the STEP competition and they contended with 2 types of competition such as skilled and non-skilled competitions.
The school is proud again of the victory achieved by the ranked Mingscian in the 2008 STEP competition.
Values Education Meet 2008
Minglanilla National Science High School emerged victorious in Values Education Meet 2008. It got its straight wins that made the school very proud in this year’s competition.
Quiz bowl and “sayawit” competitions were the main events of the presentation. The contestants in quiz ball were Fatima Gaspe from III-Zinc, Lynn Alexia Pielago from IV-Platinum and Razziane Mae Segismar from II-Lead. All of them were 1st placers and ranked overall winners.
In the “sayawit” competition, selected 4th year students from Platinum and Uranium won 1st place in the Municipal Level, 1st place in the Congressional Level and 3rd place in the Division Level. The coach is Mrs. Helen L. Teo and she is assisted by Ms. Janedina Zafra for the choreography of “sayawit.”
MNSHS Strikes at DSPC
The Division Schools Press Conference (DSPC) has been patiently awaited by many schools in the province. And our school is just one of those schools hoping to get its place and be brought to the Regional Schools Press Conference. But will we be able to penetrate our way down to RSPC with all the staffers still in tact?
This school year, Minglanilla National Science High School has made its entrance all the way to Division Schools Press Conference. All the staffers were excited to have contested with another batch of bright student journalists around the province of Cebu. DSPC held last November 10-12, 2008 in Consolacion Central School which was really an awesome place with lots of views and destinations to go to. But the real goal of the campus journalists is to bring home the bacon and that is an award and that makes also this learning institution proud.
Each of the staffers enjoyed the sights and landmarks situated in Consolacion. They never wasted their time and spent some of it roaming around and buying stuffs, but most of the time, they spent it on practicing for their crown of glory. All of them worked hard for the upcoming contest that they will soon be encountering for next year contests.
During their stay, there has been an unforgettable presentation made by our very own Gio Abastillas who played the harp and Don Francis Acapulco with his violin which charmed the audience. But not just yet, several other schools also presented their own pride. Some sang songs, some danced and some even memorized a full-length poetry.
Suddenly, the fun turned to thrill when the awarding ceremony began. One by one, names have been called, winners have been announced. A lot of them weren’t able to grab the first five slots, but they were still happy because one of the student writers from this school, Gio Abastillas, grabbed the fifth slot making him qualify for the upcoming RSPC. Although a lot of the staffers didn’t make it, they still enjoyed their 3-day stay in the Division Schools Press Conference held at Consolacion, Cebu.
MNSHS Joins “Tagisan ng Talino”
There have been unconfirmed statements about the students studying in our school, all from past to present, stating that they have the intelligence quotients but not the attitudes. Some outsiders say that they are brats with uncontrollable pride, but they have just proven them wrong. Few of the students here in Minglanilla National Science High School were chosen to be part of the contest for the subject Values with the following categories: Sayawit and Tagisan ng Talino.
The said contestants are as follows: Tagisan ng Talino – Razziane Mae Seguismar, Fatima Gaspe and Lyn Alexia Pielago. Sayawit – Vanessa Zafra, Ronalyn Hisola, Dave Martjee Paug, Mariel Mae Mangubat, Maricris Macion, Liezel Cabardo, Aiko Caraan, William Rabosa, Danfrey Vito and Cathy Rena Reroma. They gave their best by practicing everyday, by studying and most importantly, by exerting efforts to prove to the people that they have the talents to show off just to give their best with the help of their volition and discipline.
The contest for the Congressional Level was held at MNSHS. Some other schools went there to compete but only one is to be called “The Champion.” And that phrase is well suited for this school that got 1st place in both Sayawit and Tagisan ng Talino.
Truly, it was an amazing event that just recently happened. And to think of it, they haven’t just proven to those outsiders how well-disciplined the Mingscians are but also how fictional those statements they were saying about them. Besides, it is just normal to leave some pride inside of them but not too much. So heads up Mingscians and proudly say that “You are just normal kids but with greater IQ!”
Sample learning module # 4:
A LEARNING MODULE
Education 208: Professional Ethics and Legal Aspects of Education
2. Target Population:
All Graduate School Entrants, especially those enrolled in the Master’s
Degree Program, who have already finished their Baccalaureate Degrees
This three-unit course acquaints students with professional ethics entailed in the moral issues that arise because of the specialist knowledge that professionals attain, and how the use of this knowledge should be governed when providing a service to the public, and carried additional moral responsibilities to those held by the population in general. It also acquaints students with codes of conduct, codes of practice as well as ethical codes or principles in every conceivable aspect; whereby, it deals ethically and intrinsically with standards that a professional/worker should observe in performance of his/her duties and responsibilities whether in public or private practice of his/her profession or work. The course further deals with the legal aspects of education and such other laws promulgated to strengthen adherence to the ethical norms of work and the sanctions imposed for violations of the standards set by law.
4.1. General Objectives:
After completing the module, the student should be able to:
4.1.1. conceive varied ways of the moral dimensions of behaviors, codes of conduct,
professional ethics and practices reflected in the excerpted works of selected
authors, moral philosophers and old-fashioned/modern behaviorists;
4.1.2. acquaint with the ethical norms and, at the same time, sustain interest in the
codes of ethics observed by workers/professionals which regulate the profession
(e.g., teacher, accountant, lawyer, engineer, doctor, computer programmer,
nurse, medical technologist), and how conflict of interest will arise and preventive
measures to avoid them;
4.1.3. examine critically and form sound judgment of the ethical principles and practices
which geared towards in-depth studies of legal foundations of education in order
to relate to modern mode of thinking;
4.1.4. know the rules and regulations, legal aspects or bases of Philippine education,
and other pertinent laws promulgated by Congress and such other administrative
bodies to maintain the ethical standards in the practice of profession in the
private and public service/duties, and the corresponding sanctions or penalties
for the violations; and
4.1.5. further get acquainted and connected oneself through application with all the
laws and regulations covering different levels of education and such laws
promulgated to establish ethical standards in the performance of work/profession.
4.2. Specific Objectives:
After completing the module, the student should be able to:
4.2.1. identify and recall experiences pertinent to typical conflicts of interests which
interfere with professional responsibilities and how to prevent or avoid them;
4.2.2. participate actively in the legal aspects and utilize other legal bases wisely and
effectively of Philippine educational system considering, particularly, every aspect
of provisions in the 1987 Constitution relating to Education, Science, Technology,
Arts, Culture and Sports (ESTACS) as the basis of other laws governing
4.2.3. describe and compare with other Republic Acts pertaining to education about the
provisions of BP 232, the Act providing for the establishment and maintenance of
an Integrated System of Education, otherwise known as the Educational Act of
1982 which defines the rights and obligations of parents, students, teachers,
administrators, non-academic staff, as well as the school in general and such
other laws and regulations promulgated by legislature related to education; and
4.2.4. specify unambiguously the significance and impetus of the provisions of Magna
Carta of Teachers (basic rights and responsibilities of a teacher) and liken said
provisions with that of the Educational Act of 1982.
5. Entry Behavior and Prerequisite Skills:
5.1. All Graduate School Entrants are graduates of Bachelor in Secondary Education
(BSED), Bachelor in Elementary Education (BEED), or any Baccalaureate Degree with 18
units of professional educational subjects; and
5.2. General knowledge of the three foundations of education and research capability.
6. Instructions to the Learner:
The students undergo clear, definite and specific directions for every activity, project, study sheet assignment, and test that should be accomplished by them. Instructions include general instructions for the use of the module as a whole, and specific instructions to be placed in the specific components or units of the module.
Before a student plunges himself/herself into a formal study of the course, he/she should take the pretest to know his/her strengths as well as his/her weaknesses in the subject to make appropriate adjustments or changes. Thus, pretest contains a diagnostic test which determines the learner’s knowledge and lack of knowledge regarding the subject matter. The pretest covers the subject matter included in the entire module. After completing the study, he/she has to take the posttest to determine how much the student has learned after undergoing the lessons contained in the module. (Note: See separate worksheets on pretest/posttest with 50 items in professional ethics and another 50 items in legal aspects of education.)
7.1. Lesson Problem as Pretest/Learning Objectives/Study Guide/Course
Activity/Lesson Requirements/Lesson Assessment:
6.2.1. The lesson problem sets the section of the module (based on pretest),
preliminary action and stage for learning per category by posing significant but
thought-provoking questions to be answered in order to complete the lesson
modules. Students respond to each category “before and after” completing the
lesson module to act as a self check.
6.2.2. Generally, learning objectives are written in terms of learning outcomes. These
are the criteria by which materials are selected, content is outlined, instructional
procedures are developed, and tests or examinations are prepared.
6.2.2. The study guide consists of the main body of each lesson module that teaches
the skills and concepts in order for the students to be successful learners as far
as the subject is concerned.
6.2.3. The learning activity gives the students a complete practice in what they have
learned from the Study Guide. Thus, the activity of worksheets or projects needs
to be answered or accomplished.
6.2.3. The lesson requirements are established for the sole purpose of ensuring the
welfare of students as a guide during the process of learning, and these protocols
are obligatory to advance for modular lessons in successive but limited period of
6.2.4. This lesson assessment/evaluation focuses on ensuring that students have
arrived at their intended destination. It will need to gather some evidence that
they did. This usually is done by gathering students’ work and assessing this
work using some kind of grading component that is based on lesson objectives. It
could also replicate some of the activities practiced as part of the lesson, without
providing the same level of guidance during the lesson. It could always quiz
students on various lesson module concepts and problems as well.
7.2. Unit Contents for Pretest:
Each unit contains the following:
6.3.1. Lesson Problem/Pretest
6.3.2. Lesson Objectives
6.3.3. Study Guide/Main Body of the Lesson
6.3.4. Learning Activity
6.3.5. Lesson Requirements/Research Project
8. Pretest Feedback and Evaluation:
This part contains guidelines on the equivalents given to the scores obtained by the learners, such as:
8.1. For a 100-item test
99-100 = 1.0
97-98 = 1.1
95-96 = 1.2
93-94 = 1.3
91-92 = 1.4
90 = 1.5
89 = 1.6
88 = 1.7
87 = 1.8
86 = 1.9
85 = 2.0
84 = 2.1
83 = 2.2
82 = 2.3
81 = 2.4
80 = 2.5
79 = 2.6
78 = 2.7
77 = 2.8
76 = 2.9
75 = 3.0
9. Learning Activities
Included in this part are all lessons presented in each unit of the module, all the assignments which the learner must accomplish, and all projects which the learner should perform. All the activities should conform to the objectives of the module. Stated unambiguously hereunder are the learning tasks/activities in professional ethics:
PART I – PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
Professional ethics concerns the moral issues that arise because of the specialist knowledge that professionals attain, and how the use of this knowledge should be governed when providing a service to the public. The professional carries additional moral responsibilities to those held by the population in general. This is because professionals are capable of making and acting on an informed decision in situations that the general public cannot, because they have not received the relevant training. For example, a layman member of the public could not be held responsible for failing to act to save a car crash victim because they could not give an emergency tracheotomy. This is because they do not have the relevant knowledge. In contrast, a fully trained doctor (with the correct equipment) would be capable of making the correct diagnosis and carrying out the procedure and we would think it wrong if they stood by and failed to help in this situation. You cannot be held accountable for failing to do something that you do not have the ability to do. This preliminary action/overview will help you understand the nature of professional obligations and the tensions that arise among professional groups. The section in particular explores the ethical dilemmas that arise from working within multi-professional teams. In response to the new ethical and regulatory environment, many professional bodies have produced revised codes of ethics. These new codes are generally based on principles, as opposed to rules. What this means in practice is that professionals are expected to apply certain principles when determining how they should act, as opposed to simply following a set of rules. However, applying the principles to complex professional dilemmas requires the development of a set of ethical competences. Key competences include:
- An understanding of when ethical dilemmas pertaining to professional work arise in the first instance.
- An appreciation of the bases that make the principles worth pursuing. Why, for example, should a pharmacist, “encourage patients to participate in decisions about their health?” or a teacher “use the computers at school or work to earn extra money?” or a professor “ask his student for a date?”
- An understanding of the different ways in which a principle can be translated into an action. For example, when exercising professional judgment, how do you determine what the interests of the public are, in contrast to the interests of patients, students or other clients?
- And finally, it requires the ability to resolve a situation where principles are in conflict.
II. Lesson Objectives:
- To explain the professional ethics with regard to one’s conduct of behavior and practice when carrying out professional work, and matters such as professional indemnity.
- To discuss the codes of ethics that are concerned with a range of issues, including: academic honesty; adherence to confidentiality agreements; data privacy; handling of human subjects; impartiality in data analysis and professional consulting; professional accountability; resolution of conflicts of interest; and software privacy.
- To consider every aspect of the purpose of ethical standards to professional/worker, and to examine critically the pros and cons of professional ethics in relation to the 6 subsections, namely, intellectual property, academic integrity, use of computer facilities, human relations, professional integrity, and values.
III. Study Guide/Main Body of the Lesson:
- Professional Ethics/Codes of Conduct/Codes of Practice
- Advantages and Disadvantages of a Code of Ethics
- Considerations/Guidance for Writing a Code of Ethics
- Professional Ethics: Teaching
- Intellectual Property: Ethical Aspects
- Ethical Theory: Aristotelian Ethics/Cross-Cultural Ethics
- Employment Ethics: Keeping an Employment Contract
IV. Learning Tasks/Activities:
- A. Definitions and Distinctions
It is not the writer’s purpose in this learning module to propound any ethical theory in the profession. He wishes simply to draw certain distinctions which need to be recognized in discussion of ethical phenomena and to select and define a term to mark each of the types of phenomena distinguished. The terms and definitions he suggests are deliberately designed to avoid foreclosing any ethical issue concerning professional work, etc. They could, he thinks, be used in the way here presented for exposition of any ethical theory, though, of course, many ethical theories would need restatement if the definitions were used. Such restatement would only modify the theories insofar as it revealed some parts of them to be due to oversight or confusion. The definitions are close enough to the usage of ordinary speech to be readily intelligible but distinctively designate certain important differences among ethical phenomena which are often confused but in common speech and philosophical discussion.
To avoid prejudgment of the issue between naturalistic and non-naturalistic ethics, the writer shall need to begin with an ethical term which will not be defined by analysis, even though it may be naturalistically definable. Its meaning will have to remain, for present purpose, only denotatively indicated. The writer selects the term “obligation,” or “duty” to one’s profession, holding these terms to be synonyms. To say “A has an obligation to do X” which is equivalent to “A ought to do X,” in that sense of “ought” which is commonly held to be peculiar to ethics. Here both a similarity and a difference will be noted if compared to the term G.E. Moore, in Principia Ethica, took as indefinable, i.e. the term “good,” interpreted as equivalent to “ought to exist.”
Professional ethics concerns the moral issues that arise because of the specialist knowledge that professionals attain, and how the use of this knowledge should be governed when providing a service to the public. Its distinction to other ethical theory is that it arises as to the ethical limits of the professional’s responsibility and how power and authority should be used in service to the client and society. Its major task is obligation or duty to a particular profession associated with conduct of behavior and practice when carrying out professional work. Such work may include consulting, researching, teaching and writing.
- B. Theory Input
Preliminary Action: Results show that professional ethics, despite being one of the main areas in the national curriculum for both forms of teacher education, is an educational area associated with relatively modest expectations on behalf of the students. The same holds true for assessment of outcomes.
The analyses of structures of expectancies and assessment of outcomes highlight three dimensions relevant to professional ethics: the individual/collegial dimension, the cognitive/emotional dimension, and the student/profession oriented dimension. In the expectancy structure of early education students, ethical deliberation seems to be not only a cognitive matter but also a private one as it is connected to critical reflection and evaluation of own work. The emotional dimension is added in the assessment of outcomes structure, as ethical deliberation becomes connected to empathy and tolerance. Further, teachers expect to learn more within the ethics area by graduation end up in a cluster characterized by high assessment of outcomes within PLANNING, LEADERSHIP AND RESPONSIBILITY, indicating a professional orientation towards the individual responsibility of an educational leader of a team of care givers in the typical early education context. In contrast, the ethical position of education students starts out as encompassing both cognitive and emotional dimensions as well as communicative, maybe collegial discursive, ones. However, as reflected in the assessment of outcomes structure, the latter is lost at graduation. Graduate school professors and students initially high on expectations within the professional ethics area tend to end up with high assessment of outcomes within the very same area.
Education in the professions is commonly thought of as teaching theory later to be applied in professional action. Surprisingly the items on different kinds of knowledge in the beginning of studies are conceptualized as one distinct factor, isolated from the other items reflecting diverse curriculum components. In the end of studies aspects of knowledge are distributed across several other components. Not so ethics, with the possible exception of knowledge about rules and regulations in the early education teachers sample. The analyses performed do identify ethics as one of the distinct components both in the beginning of studies and at the end for the early childhood education student sample, and at least at the end for the teacher education sample. At the end of studies it is in both samples comprised of ethical deliberation, tolerance and valuing different points of view. Accepting responsibility and making decisions comes in addition for graduate school students.
According to Chris MacDonald in his considerations for writing a code of ethics, most major corporations, and many smaller companies, now have Codes of Ethics, along with a range of other issue-specific ethics documents. Such a document embodies the ethical commitments of one’s organization; it tells the world who the person is, what he/she stands for, and what to expect when conducting business with him/her. The content of a Code, and the process for writing it, can vary quite a lot, but there are some of the standard issues to consider. There are questions surrounding the validity of professional codes of ethics. On a practical level it is very difficult for those independent of the profession to monitor practice, leaving the possibility that a code of practice may be self serving. This is because the nature of professions is that they have almost a complete monopoly on a particular area of knowledge.
Theory input was supported by the Association of Social Work Boards, 1996: Standards of Practice/Code of Conduct, and Model Work Practice Act, in the Association of Social Work Boards, Social Work Laws and Regulations with a Comparison Guide, (Culpeper, VA: ASWB). Thus, the additional course goals and content analysis with categorical inputs are given due recognition on behalf of the students, teachers and professionals.
Course Goals/Content Analysis:
Input 1 (General Goals) – It should be clearly stated, and must be related to ethical work practice. The overall purpose of this model course is to encourage and help students develop a better understanding of and manage the ethical issues and dilemmas they encounter in practice. The goals are:
1. To enable students to increase their appreciation and understanding of the history and evolution of
values and ethics in the work profession;
2. To enable students to develop skills in applying relevant ethics concepts and theories of ethics to
professional work practice;
3. To provide opportunities for students to acquire knowledge about professional, and ethical
standards of practice, their role in competent, ethical work, and times at which professional standards
4. To provide opportunities for students to increase self-awareness and develop an awareness of the
interplay of personal values and professional behavior; and
5. To enable students to increase their ability to recognize ethical issues and to apply ethical
decision-making frameworks and protocols through enhanced use of critical thinking skills;
6. To enable students to increasingly recognize and embrace the role of diversity and social justice in
understanding and addressing ethical dilemmas.
Input 2: (Core Content) — It should address specific core areas. The needs of course
students may determine how much emphasis each of these content areas will receive. The core content areas are:
1. History and evolution of values and ethics when carrying out a professional work;
2. Ethics theories (e.g. Abramson, Gilligan, Levy, Keith-Lucas, Loewenberg, Reamer, etc.);
3. Professional standards of work practice, such as exhibited in the ethical codes of the Graduate
4. Professional values and self-awareness about ethical professional behavior; and
6. Ethical decision making processes and dilemma examples.
Input 3: (Applicable Areas of Practice) — Professional work ethics applies to all aspects of professional work practice, and is not limited to ethical direct practice. Students should understand that professional workers may come to an ethics training from a wide range of professional backgrounds, and should be aware of whether the content provided is applicable to direct practice, indirect practice, or both practice areas: a) direct practice – it can be defined as the range of professional work activities with or on behalf of clients in which goals are established, worked toward and guide to professional work ethics course development reached through personal contact and immediate influence with those seeking social services; b) potential ethical issues — they include but are not limited to sexual misconduct, boundary issues, dual and multiple relationships, conflicts of interest, confidentiality, informed consent, service delivery, professional competency, fraud, client rights, professional impairment, mandatory reporting, discrimination, diversity, billing practices, social justice, supervision and consultation; c) indirect practice – it can be defined as those professional social work activities such as administration, supervision, research, publication, policy development, education (classroom and field instruction) which may not involve immediate or personal contact with clients being served.
Input 4: (Objectives) — Educators should have a clear idea of what a student who takes graduate school studies will be able to do at the end of the course presentation, and should clearly communicate these objectives to students. Both educators and students should be able to measure the degree to which these objectives were met through the course. Objectives for a course will vary depending on the purpose of the course, the skill level and experience level of the professional worker, and the educational preferences of the person and/or organization designing the course. The first step in designing course objectives is to develop a clear idea of the target audience for the course. Just as professional workers are employed in a wide variety of ethical settings, they bring a range of knowledge and skill levels to any continuing education course. Courses in ethics could be designed to meet the needs of practitioners of three general skill levels: basic, intermediate and advanced. These skill levels may be conceptualized by using a variety of factors. The following are a few examples of these factors: a) Level of competency in assessment, knowledge and skills of the professional worker; level of education; level of licensure; years of practice experience; b) Use of specialized methods or ability to use more complex methods; c) Focus on a particular population, problem or area of practice.
Input 5: (Ethical Decision-Making) – it contains examples of possible course outcomes or objectives for a core content area entitled “Ethical decision-making processes” for three skill levels. These sample objectives contain references to a “professional work practice situation”– in the basic level this is referred to as an “uncomplicated professional work practice situation, “while in the intermediate level there is a reference to a “moderately complex professional work practice dilemma.” The differences in these practice situations would lie in the factors that may complicate an ethical dilemma: for example, the relationship between the severity of the problem and client’s strengths, or the experience level of the professional worker, the number of people involved and/or degree of magnitude of the problem (e.g. life or death situation).
Input 6: (Ethical Principles) — Ethical practices apply to many professions, the relationship of the ethical principles to the practice of professional work, and the integration of ethics into the core values of the profession, demands that presenters be students, teachers, workers and professionals and that they have extensive knowledge in broad ethical principles and theory, values and ethics within professional work, and the practical application of these concepts.
- React intently and comprehensively to this paragraph:
“Some people live to work; others work to live. Whether your job is your greatest joy in life or just a duty, it is worth reflecting on whether what you do at work contributes to making the world better. Maybe your work won’t win a Nobel Prize, a Turing Award, or a Field Medal, but you can use some of your creative energy to see that your efforts have some positive value. When all is said and done, your non-scholarly contributions might far outweigh your scholarly ones if you encouraged an at-risk student, wrote a clear textbook, helped a more junior colleague, and organized a conference that catalyzes new research, or made a staff member’s life a little easier. Whatever your values, bring them to work.”
Rita Adolfo is an attorney who is representing a man in a divorce action. Her client has just called her and said (referring to his wife’s lawyer) “I ought to just go over there and shoot that lousy low-life.” She does not believe her client is likely to do any such thing but is concerned about her professional responsibilities.
Which of the following most accurately describes Lee Anne’s obligations under the Model Rules of Professional Conduct?
(A) She must disclose what her client said to her opposing counsel because her client has threatened to cause death or serious bodily harm; even though she does not believe harm is likely.
(B) She may not disclose the client’s statement because she does not believe that the client is likely to carry out the threat.
(C) She may disclose the client’s threat anonymously to the police.
(D) She has discretion to disclose her client’s threat to her opposing counsel to prevent death or serious bodily harm; even though she does not believe harm is likely.
- Conflicts of Interest
Joseph Navarro is an attorney who, until recently, was employed by McMillen & Elkin. Joseph now is interviewing for a job with Johnston & Barone, another local law firm. Johnston & Barone would like to hire Joseph, but they are concerned because Johnston & Barone’s biggest case is against a client represented by McMillen & Elkin, and Joseph worked for McMillen & Elkin while that case was ongoing (although Joseph had nothing to do with the case and knows nothing about it or the client).
Which of the following best describes Johnston & Barone’s options under the Model Rules of Professional Conduct?
(A) The firm may hire Joseph as long as McMillen & Elkin’s client gives informed consent, confirmed in writing.
(B) The firm may hire Joseph as long as the firm is prepared to withdraw from the case against McMillen & Elkin’s client.
(C) The firm may hire Joseph as long as it screens him from any participation in the case involving McMillen & Elkin’s client and as long as he receives no income from the case.
(D) The firm may hire Joseph and continue in the case because Joseph did not acquire confidential information about McMillen & Elkin’s client.
- Competence, Communication, and Scope of Authority
Michael Rosales is a new attorney who has opened his own law office. A competent but aging client has asked Michael to draft an irrevocable trust that will provide for her during her lifetime but will place her financial affairs in the control of her son, as trustee. Michael has never done any such thing.
Which of the following most accurately describes Michael’s obligations under the Model Rules of Professional Conduct?
(A) Michael must decline the representation because he is not competent to perform the services that the client needs.
(B) Michael may only accept the representation if he associates an experienced lawyer to assist him.
(C) Michael can accept the representation only if the client needs his services on an emergency basis until a competent lawyer can be consulted.
(D) Michael may accept the representation if the requisite level of competence can be achieved by reasonable preparation.
- Since professions exist to create expectations, a professional’s obligation is to meet them. Professional obligations are questions of fact, not ethics. What is expected? What is consistent with the mission of the profession? Furthermore, what general ethical obligations apply in the context of a professional’s work? Should one practice the profession at all?
- Write an abstract about the salient points of the following: professional ethics – teaching; Aristotelian ethics; and Cross-cultural ethics.
- Write an epitome of your personality and self-awareness, as far as professional ethics is concerned, by posing these questions: Under what kinds of conditions do you do your best work? What kinds of working conditions do you find the most difficult? It’s possible, of course, to be loyal to your employer but still to disagree with some of the rules and policies. Can you provide an example in your own experience?
PART II – LEGAL ASPECTS OF EDUCATION
Everything in education is established, defined, and implemented by law. Public schools are funded by taxpayers through legislation. School operations and administrative issues are set by law (class sizes, use of funds, teacher licensure, etc.). States define academic standards through legislation. Even the amount of classroom is limited and defined through state or local codes.
The purpose of the legal aspects of education program is to prepare collaborative, proactive educational leaders committed to improving the quality of educational legal knowledge in a variety of organizational contexts. It is designed to acquaint school administrators, teachers, students and parents with fundamental legal issues that impact Philippine elementary and secondary schools. Not only the learning institutions but also the other private and government agencies to have adequate legal preparations, more particularly the leaders or professional educators who are tasked to require full exposure to a variety of the legal components affecting private and public establishments, including elementary and secondary educations.
II. Lesson Objectives:
- Discuss the differences and similarities between the two main Republic Acts 4670 and 232 from Magna Carta for Public School Teachers and the Education Act of 1982.
- Understand and be able to identify the legal aspects of education, particularly the educational law and its purpose.
- Explore the nature and implications of moral conflicts that arise from the pertinent provisions of the Magna Carta.
- Produce an effective legal essay/debate which takes a stand for/against intellectual property (IP) concerning the patent, trade secret and copyright.
III. Study Guide/Main Body of the Lesson:
Unit I: Legal Aspects of Education; Laws/Regulations
Pertaining to Conduct and Ethical Standards of Public
Official/Employees; Corresponding Disciplinary
A. Education is Established, Defined and Implemented by
Law; Public Schools/School Operations and
Administrative Issues/Academic Standards
B. Intellectual Property: Legal Aspects
C. Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act – RA 3019
D. Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards of Public Officials
and Employees (RA 6713)
E. Rule XIV – Discipline – Book V of EO 292 (Revised
F. Plunder Law – (RA 7080 as amended by RA 7659 – the
Death Penalty Law) and the Petition of Former President
Estrada to Declare Plunder Law Unconstitutional
G. Article XI of the 1987 Constitution – Accountability of
Unit II: Laws Pertaining to Education
A. Article XIV of the 1987 Constitution – Provisions for
B. Batas Pambansa Blg. 232 – The Education Act of 1982
C. Other Legal Bases – Act No. 74; Act No. 2706;
Commonwealth Act No. 1; Commonwealth Act No. 80;
Commonwealth Act No. 578; Commonwealth Act No.
586; Commonwealth Act No. 589; Republic Act No. 139;
Republic Act No. 896; Republic Act No. 1124; Republic
Act No. 1265; Republic Act No. 1425; Republic Act No.
4670; Republic Act No. 1079; Republic Act No. 6655;
Republic Act No. 6728; Republic Act No. 6850; Republic
Act No. 7079; Republic Act No. 7323; Republic Act No.
7722; Republic Act No. 7731; Republic Act No. 7743;
Republic Act No. 7784; Republic Act No. 7796; Republic
Act No. 7797; Republic Act No. 7836;
D. Magna Carta of Public School Teachers
E. Higher Education Act of 1987
F. Localization Law – RA 8190
IV. Learning Tasks/Activities:
- A. Definitions and Distinctions
How do legal aspects define and how they are distinct from the others in terms of legal bases or theories as far as education is concerned? Legal aspects, especially rights of students and the corresponding responsibilities and obligations of schools and educational personnel for meeting their educational needs, the course will include specific legal components inherent with the identification and education of students including adaptations of classroom instructional methodology for students in the regular educational classroom. They serve as a continuing step in providing the understanding and awareness of issues which are important to the successful operation of legal aspects. They contain accurate and authoritative information discussing the often misunderstood facets of these programs. Legal problems associated with facilities and equipment, personnel and practices, the practice and unauthorized practice, informed consent, documentation and more are all given utmost definitions and distinctions further in this learning module.
- B. Theory Input
According to MSN Encarta, law, body of official rules and regulations, generally found in constitutions, legislation, judicial opinions, and the like, that is used to govern a society and to control the behavior of its members. The nature and functions of law have varied throughout history. In modern societies, some authorized body such as a legislature or a court makes the law. It is backed by the coercive power of the state, which enforces the law by means of appropriate penalties or remedies. Formal legal rules and actions are usually distinguished from other means of social control and guides for behavior such as mores, morality, public opinion, and custom or tradition. Of course, a lawmaker may respond to public opinion or other pressures, and a formal law may prohibit what is morally unacceptable. On the other hand, the structure of school governance, decision making, and the relevant state and federal legislation affecting public schooling are deliberately studied with in-depth application and theoretical analysis with the help of external laws that link the school and the community. The 1987 Constitution and other laws pertaining to education serve partly as the theoretical input about legal aspects of education. Further studies about these laws will be fully backed up with legal means to support the claims in Philippine educational system as far as the functions of the law are concerned.
Law serves as a variety of functions. Laws against crimes, for example, help to maintain a peaceful, orderly, relatively stable society. Courts contribute to social stability by resolving disputes in a civilized fashion. Property and contract laws facilitate business activities and private planning. Laws limiting the powers of government help to provide some degree of freedom that would not otherwise be possible. Law has also been used as a mechanism for social change; for instance, at various times laws have been passed to inhibit social discrimination and to improve the quality of individual life in matters of health, education, and welfare.
Some experts believe the popular view of law overemphasizes its formal, coercive aspects. They point out that if a custom or norm is assured of judicial backing, it is, for practical purposes, law. On the other hand, a statute that is neither obeyed nor enforced is empty law. Social attitudes toward the formal law are a significant part of the law in process. The role of law in China and Japan, for example, is somewhat different from its role in Western nations. Respect for the processes of law is low, at least outside matters of business and industry. Tradition looms much larger in everyday life. Resort to legal resolution of a dispute is truly a last resort, with conciliation being the mechanism that is preferred for social control.
The legal experts, particularly in Philippine Educational System, implement stiff legal aspects (culled from legal bases of Philippine Education and Legal Foundations of Education by Cecilio Duka; 1987 Constitution (Article XI & XIV); Nachura, Antonio, Outline/Reviewer in Political Law, 2002: Jurisprudence – GR # 148560, Nov. 19, 2001; Civil Service Law (Book V of Title 1 – Executive Order 292; Republic Acts as Integrated in the Course Content; Education Act of 1982 Book; and Magna Carta for Public School Teachers). Other legal aspects include Laws/Regulations Pertaining to Conduct and Ethical Standards of Public Official/Employees; Corresponding Disciplinary Actions/Penalties; Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act – RA 3019; Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards of Public Officials and Employees (RA 6713); and Article XI of the 1987 Constitution – Accountability of Public Officers. In Unit II, the topics include Laws Pertaining to Education.
- How is a moral conflict best resolved?
- Write a summary reaction to this paragraph: “Accountability is the obligation to render an account for the responsibility conferred. When systems for public transparency and accountability are being devised, four questions must be considered: (a) who is accountable? (b) for what is s/he accountable? (c) to whom is s/he accountable? and (d) how is that accountability discharged? As the discharge of accountability requires transparency, in this lesson we will henceforth use the term accountability as a shorthand for accountability including transparency.”
- Does government through CHED return the focus of the Higher Education Act to its first priority by concentrating taxpayer subsidies and grant on those who cannot afford higher education?
- Write an epitome of the salient points of Anti-graft and Corrupt Practices Act – RA 3019 and Plunder Law.
- Cite one example of a moral conflict in your school. How was it resolved?
- Make a reaction paper based on the preliminary action, content analysis, conclusion and recommendation about Intellectual Property – Legal Aspects and Intellectual Property – Ethical Aspects.
The posttest is used to determine how much the student has learned after undergoing all the lessons contained in the module. The pretest may be used as a posttest. The facilitator takes notes of the pretest and posttest results and compares the scores in order to determine whether the learner has improved after accomplishing the module.
Attached herewith are the 100 questions/test items of the pretest and posttest, all the students in the Graduate School with modular lessons are expected to answer said questions as a whole covering test items for professional ethics, including the legal aspects of education.
Furthermore, for comparison in getting the scores of the pretest and posttest, the facilitator has to use statistical tests. One useful statistical formula for this purpose is the Fisher’s t-test of mean difference between two sets of scores.
11. Post-test Key and Evaluation:
The posttest key contains the answers to the test based on 100 questions/test items. The answer key is attached/found in the facilitator’s manual. The teacher concerned is responsible for said answers for safekeeping and ready reference. The evaluation contains the equivalents of the ratings, the same equivalents assigned to the pretest which are used in the posttest. (see sample of equivalents in the pretest under the pretest feedback and evaluation).
12. Bibliography/Course Reference:
It is a list of books, periodicals, government documents, etc. that the student has to use in order to accomplish the modules. For further course references, please look at the following or consult for information using these guides:
- Section Editors Robert Davison and Ned Kock, Professional Ethics
- McDonald, Michael, Ethics and Conflict of Interest
- Chris MacDonald, Ph.D., Guidance and Considerations for Writing a Code of Ethics
- Ethical Code/Codes of Ethics
- Cecilio Duka, Legal Bases of Phil. Education/Legal Foundations of Education
- 1987 Constitution (Article XI & XIV)
- Magna Carta of Public School Teachers
- Nachura, Antonio, Outline/Reviewer in Political Law, 2002
- Jurisprudence – GR # 148560, Nov. 19, 2001
- Civil Service Law (Book V of Title I – Executive Order 292)
- Republic Acts – as Integrated in the Course Content
- Batas Pambansa Blg. 232 – Education Act of 1982
PART I – PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
- 1. Distinguish ethics from professional ethics.
- 2. What do you mean by the following:
- a. code of ethics;
- b. code of conduct; and
- c. code of practice?
3. Expound on this statement: “A code of ethics should be tailored to the needs and values of your organization.”
4. Think carefully about the process by which you create your new code. Who will be involved? A small working group? Or all the people affected by the code? How will you distil the needs of your organization and the beliefs of your members into a document? The process may matter as much as the final product.
5. How will your new code be implemented? How will it be publicized, both inside and outside of your organization? What steps, if any, will be taken to ensure that the values embodied in your code get implemented in organizational policies and practices?
6. How/when will your code be reviewed/revised?
7. What is really the purpose of ethical standards as far as professional ethics is concerned?
8. In academic integrity, is the university system of education built upon a high level of trust that students and faculty will be honest in their dealings with each other? Does it break down quickly if this honesty is lacking? Are there some actions violated the trust in academic integrity?
9. One of the subsections in professional ethics is the use of computer facilities. Cite at least 5 examples of activities that are universally prohibited in the use of computer facilities.
10. What is professional integrity?
11. Does professional integrity encompass a wide variety of responsibilities? Give a few of them (concrete examples of responsibilities).
12. Are codes of practice legally enforceable? Why?
13. Give an epitome of professional ethics with regard to teaching.
14. Say something about ethical theory as far as Aristotelian ethics/cross-cultural ethics is concerned.
15. What is the difference between considerations for writing a code of ethics and guidance for writing a code of ethics?
16. What do you understand about employment ethics?
17. Cite at least 2 advantages and disadvantages of a code of ethics? Explain each.
18. Expound on the professional ethics that concerns one’s conduct of behavior and practice when carrying out professional work, and the professional ethics that concerns matters such as professional indemnity.
19. Discuss the codes of ethics that are concerned with a range of issues, including: academic honesty; adherence to confidentiality agreements, data privacy; handling of human subjects; impartiality in data analysis and professional consulting; professional accountability; resolution of conflicts of interest; and software privacy.
- 20. The purpose of ethical standards is to provide an implicit foundation upon which human interactions can proceed smoothly. Answer each question below in relation to the 6 subsections of professional ethics such as intellectual property, academic integrity, use of computer facilities, human relations, professional integrity and values:
- a. “How much credit do I need to give previous authors whose words or ideas I have used?”
- b. “How much help can I get on a homework assignment without cheating?”
- c. “Should I warn a hospital that my company has delivered a shoddy piece of software to them?”
21. Whether it’s a formally written contract or simply a handshake deal, must both sides ethically maintain an open or honest relationship for the benefit of everyone? Why?
22. Since professions exist to create expectations, a professional’s obligation is to meet them. Professional obligations are questions of fact, not ethics. What is expected? What is consistent with the mission of the profession? Furthermore, what general ethical obligations apply in the context of a professional’s work? Should one practice the profession at all?
- 23. Write an abstract about the salient points of the following: professional ethics – teaching; Aristotelian ethics; and Cross-cultural ethics.
24. Why is itvery difficult for those independent of the profession to monitor practice, leaving the possibility that a code of practice may be self serving?
25. Expound on this statement: “By establishing oneself as an ethical employee, a reputation is established that results in raises and opportunity for advancement.”
26. Do teachers expect to learn more within the ethics area by graduation end up in a cluster characterized by high assessment of outcomes within PLANNING, LEADERSHIP AND RESPONSIBILITY? Why? Support your answer.
27. Do you agree or disagree with this statement: “An ethical behavior means a better career path, with greater opportunities for promotions, and for being paid better salaries? Why?
28. Is an ethical employee highly prized wherever she/he goes in the business world? Why? Cite concrete examples.
29. Does the professional carry additional moral responsibilities to those held by the population in general? Why?
30. In your opinion, what do you understand about disciplinary codes?
31. Based on a theoretical level, is there debate as to whether an ethical code for a profession should be consistent with the requirements of morality governing the public; thus, separatists argue that professions should be allowed to go beyond such confines when they judge it necessary? Why?
32. Why does professional ethics concern or entail in the moral issues that arise both in the private and public sectors?
33. How can you define professional and personal ethics?
34. Give your comment on this: “Professors, guided by a deep conviction of the worth and
dignity of the advancement of knowledge, recognize the special responsibilities placed
upon them. Their primary responsibility to their subject is to seek and to state the truth as
they see it. To this end professors devote their energies to developing and improving their
scholarly competence. They accept the obligation to exercise critical self-discipline and
judgment in using, extending, and transmitting knowledge. They practice intellectual
honesty. Although professors may follow subsidiary interests, these interests must never
seriously hamper or compromise their freedom of inquiry.”
- 35. React to this paragraph positively and negatively: “As teachers, professors encourage the
free pursuit of learning in their students. They hold before them the best scholarly and
ethical standards of their discipline. Professors demonstrate respect for students as
individuals and adhere to their proper roles as intellectual guides and counselors.
Professors make every reasonable effort to foster honest academic conduct and to ensure
that their evaluations of students reflect each student’s true merit. They respect the
confidential nature of the relationship between professor and student. They avoid any
exploitation, harassment, or discriminatory treatment of students.”
- 36. In professional ethics, does it connotatively matter which hat we wear? Why?
- 37. What is a profession?
- 38. What do you mean by professional obligation?
- 39. Give your point of view about conflicting obligations.
- 40. Give the difference between these two phrases: “To teach professional ethics and to teach
ethics to professionals.”
- 41. What do you fathom about ethics education?
42. What is the difference between professional ethics from health ethics? 43. What is professional responsibility?
- 44. What are the basic responsibilities of the profession? Teaching or general office work?
- 45. A solicitor is expected to act honestly at all times – the rules of professional conduct are clearly stated – but in this case, the solicitor appears to have organized and participated in a well planned, deliberate deception of an offshore court, the husband and the husband’s two sets of lawyers. How, I ask myself, is that honest? Support your answer.
- 46. A manager in a multi-office CPA firm serves on the board of directors of a potential review client. The manager would not be assigned to provide services to the client nor located in the office that would perform the engagement. Is the firm independent to perform the review? Why?
- 47. What is moral considerability? Ethical pull? How are they related to one another?
- 48. How are moral problems and values related?
- 49. The professional, when confronting a choice, is faced with two questions:
What should I do as a human being? / What should I do teaching as a profession?
- 50. How does a code of ethics apply when cultures have different values (i.e. “saving face” vs.
PART II – LEGAL ASPECTS OF EDUCATION
- 1. In your point of view, what are the legal aspects of education?
2. What is the purpose of the legal aspects of education program in a university?
- 3. What is educational law and what is its purpose?
4. How does the legal system work?
5. To what extent does law affect the university?
- 6. What is a university from a legal point of view?
- 7. What rules and regulations govern a university?
8. How does one read a legal decision?
9. Is the paragraph below (enclosed in quotation marks) applicable in the Philippines?
Comment on this: “A schoolmaster may, in respect of school offenses, misbehavior,
disobedience, idleness and the like, lawfully inflict moderate and reasonable corporal
chastisement, commensurate with the offense, upon a scholar capable of appreciating
10. Under intellectual property law, does the holder of abstract “properties” have certain exclusive rights to the creative work, commercial symbol, or invention by which it is covered?
11. What do you mean by intellectual property? Give examples and explain each.
12. What are the sources of moral conflicts that arise from the pertinent provisions of the
13. What do the private foundation rules require, and how should community foundations
apply the rules?
14. To whom should the community foundation make out the scholarship check, the student
or the school?
- 15. What are the community foundation’s tax reporting requirements in connection with
scholarship assistance? What are the tax consequences to the student who receives
- 16. What are the special rules that govern scholarship programs established by corporations for their employees?
- 17. What is Republic Act No. 4670 which was enacted on June 18, 1966?
18. State section 1 of the Magna Carta for Public School Teachers and explain it.
19. State localization law, otherwise known as RA 8190.
20. What is Article XIV of the 1987 Constitution? What are the provisions of this article to the
constituents as citizens in the Philippines?
21. Explain the Education Act of 1982.
- 22. Distinguish Higher Education Act of 1987 from Higher Education Act of 1994.
23. Expound on RA 7080 as amended by RA 7659, otherwise known as Plunder Law and Death Penalty Law.
24. Make a reaction paper based on the preliminary action, content analysis, conclusion and recommendation about Intellectual Property – Legal Aspects and Intellectual Property – Ethical Aspects.
25. What is Republic Act 1079? What other legal bases to support this act?
26. Write a summary reaction to this paragraph: “Accountability is the obligation to render an account for the responsibility conferred. When systems for public transparency and accountability are being devised, four questions must be considered: (a) who is accountable? (b) for what is s/he accountable? (c) to whom is s/he accountable? and (d) how is that accountability discharged? As the discharge of accountability requires transparency, in this lesson we will henceforth use the term accountability as a shorthand for accountability including transparency.”
- 27. Does government through CHED return the focus of the Higher Education Act to its first priority by concentrating taxpayer subsidies and grant on those who cannot afford higher education?
28. Write an epitome of the salient points of Anti-graft and Corrupt Practices Act – RA 3019 and Plunder Law.
29. Distinguish related rights from authors’ rights. Elaborate further.
30. Explain patent, trademark and trade secret.
31. As far as ownership is concerned, who works “for hire?”
32. Is a Ph.D. student paid by professor to develop a specific algorithm working for hire? Yes/No? Support your answer.
33. State the following Republic Acts: Republic Act No. 6655; Republic Act No. 7743; Republic Act No. 7877; Republic Act No. 1124
34. What is EO 292 of the Revised Administrative Code?
35. Any comment about the “Accountability of Public Officers” under Article XI of the 1987 Constitution.
36. State the following Commonwealth Acts: Commonwealth Act No. 80; Commonwealth Act No. 578; Commonwealth Act No. 586; Commonwealth Act No. 1
37. In your opinion, are legal aspects fully implemented in school as far as laws are concerned? Why?
38. As far as the right of the student is concerned, what is the global campaign for education?
39. What’s so special about education?
40. Based on your observations and experiences, how do you define academic freedom inside and outside the classroom?
41. As a student, does human right really shape your character as an individual, and as a person? Why?
42. Explain “curriculum and academic freedom” in a learning institution, especially in the tertiary level.
43. What do you comprehend about academic disciplinary actions? Do they affect your learning performance? Why?
44. What if a worker committed a violation of the company’s current standards of conduct 6
months ago, and was unaware that it was a violation? Can he still be held accountable
45. Supposing you have your 16-year old son who was recently convicted of a
misdemeanor offense of illegal drug use. You understand that as an employee, you
cannot associate with persons whom you know to be involved in criminal activity, but
does that include your son?
46. As an academic member of staff, what is your responsibility with respect to plagiarism?
47. How can I help students to avoid plagiarism?
48. Regarding the right to education: In many countries, the government
takes care of the education. But it is getting more and more difficult when you live far
from school, and suddenly the government can’t look after the travel-allowance. Then it
is very difficult to get to school. (For university you should pay by yourself.) In Holland
there is enough money for this but in some other countries there is not enough money.
In addition, there is, in some cases, a shortage of trained people and there are far too
few teachers… How does this affect the right to education?
49. Regarding punishment and torture: Is it not necessary to control evil and hooliganism by
giving punishment accordingly? Once he is punished he will realize his mistake and will
not repeat or do it again. Any reaction to this — ?
50. What legal benefits are payable to survivors of a worker whose death is caused by a